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Covid-19: A Review about One of the Worst Known Pandemics of the Century

The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARSCOV-2 known as COVID-19 is one of the biggest known pandemics to have occurred. Much of the information regarding the SARS-COV 2 has been obtained owing to its similarities to the SARS virus. The spike proteins of the virus attack the ACE 2 receptors present mainly in the respiratory tract. The human body reacts vigorously to the infection by releasing a vast amount of interferon and interleukins which transform into a cytokine storm leading to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Studies show that people with comorbidities are subject to a greater risk of catching the infection. A large section of these people has underlying cardiovascular diseases and blood pressure. An interesting hypothesis about ACE inhibitors possibly up regulating the ACE 2 receptors and exposing patients to a greater risk is also being studied upon. While the search for a vaccine for COVID-19 is ongoing, convalescent plasma therapy has emerged as an effective therapy for severely affected patients. Anti-viral drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir are also being tried as potential medications. Scientists have advised the intake of vitamin C and vitamin D in adequate doses daily, as studies have shown patients taking these vitamin supplements have lesser risks to catching pneumonia. This review article takes a deep look at how the SARS-COV 2 virus works, its primary symptoms while also briefing about the prophylaxis and medications.


Chiranjit Das

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