The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ten traditionally used chewing sticks in Eritrea against oral pathogens which are responsible for dental carries. In this experimental study Aqueous ethanol extracts of ten different chewing sticks (Cadaba farisonia (CF), Citrus lemon (CL), Dodonea angustifolia (DA), Euclea schimperi (ES), Grewia ferruginea (GF), Olea europea (OE), Parkinsonia aculeate(PA), Rumex nervosus (RN), Salvadora persica (SP), Schinus molle (SM)) from different parts of Eritrea were tested against isolated microorganisms from the plaque sample of patients of dental carries without previous antibiotic history. Furthermore the cultural, morphological, microscopic and biochemical identification of the ten isolates was also performed. All the extract from selected chewing sticks showed good antimicrobial activity against all the isolated pathogens except Grewia ferruginea and Parkinsonia aculeta which showed negligible zone of inhibition. It was also observed that extract of Cadaba farisonia at 500 mg/ml showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 28 mm against DC3 whereas Citrus lemon at same concentration produced a maximum zone of inhibition of 25 mm against DC5 and DC7. Extract of Dodonea angustifolia produced a maximum zone of inhibition of 28 mm against DC5 at concentration of 500 mg/ml while extract of Euclea schimperi exhibited a maximum zone of inhibition (27 mm) against DC10. Likewise extract of Olea europae produced a maximum zone of inhibition of 29 mm against DC7, whereas Rumex nervosus extract showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 32 mm against DC5. Cold extract of Salvadora persica and Schinus molle produced a maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 33 mm respectively at 500 mg/ml against. Comparison of antimicrobial potential was performed against isolated pathogens. Among all the extracts of chewing sticks, eight chewing sticks were active against all the organisms while two sticks were showing negligible inhibition. Chewing sticks were ranked according to their antimicrobial potential. The present finding supports the use of these chewing sticks in oral hygiene since their potential anti-plaque effect is likely to complement the mechanical plaque-removing property of chewing sticks. This is however likely to be the first time report made on the effect of sticks on oral pathogenic bacteria in Eritrea.
Jeevan Jyoti K, Yacob T , Abdurhman N , Asmerom S , Birhane T , Sebri J and Kaushik A